Me, standing in front of the Wilmer McLean house, site of the Confederate surrender, April 9, 1865, Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, VA.

Photo taken by Cheryl Pula.

The day Cheryl and I visited Appomattox Court House, there were but a handful of visitors about. I remember going into the McLean House and looking into the parlor, where Generals Grant and Lee met. As I looked inside, I could not believe how small the room was! The paintings of the scene all made it look so huge.

After an all-night march, the weary men of the Fifth Corps--along with the Second and Sixth Corps--finally cornered what was left of the Army of Northern Virginia, near the village of Appomattox Court House. Sheridan's cavalry had been fighting a pitched battle with the Confederates, and needed assistance from any available infantry. Chamberlain was concerned he would be receiving a flank attack himself, when suddenly he sees a sight he never expected to see:

"Suddenly rose to sight another form, close in our own front--a soldierly young figure, a Confederate staff officer undoubtedly. Now I see the white flag, earnestly borne, and its possible purport sweeps before my inner vision like a wraith of morning mist. He comes steadily mood so whimsically sensitive that I could even smile at the material of the flag--wondering where in either army was found a towel, and one so white. But it bore a mighty message--that simple emblem of homely service, wafted hitherward above the dark and crimsoned streams that never can wash themselves away."(22)

Unknown to either Chamberlain or his men, a truce had been called.

"The messenger draws near...delivers his message: 'Sir, I am from General Gordon. General Lee desires a cessation of hostilities until he can hear from General Grant as to the proposed surrender."(23)

Chamberlain is stunned by the word: "Surrender!" He thinks of how many times it was so close, yet snatched away--how often dreamed of, but never realized. He comes to his senses long enough to reply:

"'Surrender?' It takes a moment to gather one's speech. 'Sir', I answer, 'that matter exceeds my authority. I will send to my superior. General Lee is right. He can do no more'...I bid him wait a while, and the message goes up to my Corps commander, General Griffin, leaving me mazed at the boding change."(24)

Yes, the flag of truce had come in, but just then a loud cannon-shot from the direction of Appomattox crashes into the Union line, killing Lt. Hiram Clark of the 185th New York--a young officer in Chamberlain's brigade, whom he admired very much. Clark became one of the last men killed in the Army of the Potomac.

As news of the surrender spreads, however, the Union troops go absolutely nuts--loud cheers erupt, men jump up and down, caps and knapsacks fly upward. Finally, after four long years, the war is over.

Me, standing in front of the "Peers House", near the "Surrender Triangle", Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, VA.

Photo taken by Cheryl Pula.

Cheryl and I strolled through this reconstructed village, peeking into various buildings. But when we got to this corner, I wanted to burst into tears. I had seen a painting by artist Don Troiani in the old courthouse, which depicted the surrender ceremony--and which showed Chamberlain and his men positioned near where I now stood. I was seized by the thought: "He was here! He was here!" "He", meaning Chamberlain.

Speaking of the "Peers House": I have a friend who works at Appomattox Court House, named Patrick Schroeder. He is the Park Historian there--and he also portrays George Peers, who lived in the above house. Peers was a prominent Appomattox citizen. And on a recent visit to Syracuse, Patrick shared the following anecdote about Mr. Peers, and Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain:

While Chamberlain and his men were camped in the Appomattox area, George Peers--a citizen of Appomattox--invited Chamberlain to dine with him. Years after the war, Mr. Peers renimisced to a writer about that meal. He spoke very highly of Chamberlain. And he was especially grateful to the General for bringing REAL COFFEE, which was a wartime scarcity in the South!

Although the surrender itself was signed April 9, 1865, General Grant had decided that a surrender ceremony should be held, in order to make certain to the former Rebels that, indeed, the war was over. They were to hand over their weapons and their battle colors, but keep their sidearms and their horses. A surprise, and a great honor, was in store for Chamberlain:

"Late that night [April 9], I was summoned to headquarters, where General Griffin informed me that I was to command the parade on the occasion of the formal surrender of the arms and colors of Lee's army...Griffin added in a significant tone that Grant wished the ceremony to be as simple as possible, and that nothing should be done to humiliate the manhood of the Southern soldiers."(25)

So it happened that this VOLUNTEER OFFICER, was chosen by General Grant himself, out of all the officers (volunteer AND Regular army) in the Army of the Potomac, to receive the "arms and colors" of the Army of Northern Virginia. In later years, when asked why he thought he'd been chosen for this honor, Chamberlain would say that he figured General Griffin had something to do with it. Upon hearing this news, Chamberlain asked the new Fifth Corps commander one thing: he wanted to be given the First Division's Third Brigade--which included the 20th Maine--because he had shared so many battles with them, and wanted them beside him, in this historic hour. Griffin agreed, and transferred Chamberlain to the Third Brigade.

The ceremony took place three days later, on April 12, 1865--four years to the day since the first shots were fired on Fort Sumter, South Carolina.

No--there was no color photography at Appomattox in April 1865! This picture was taken at the 140th anniversary reenactment at Appomattox, VA, in April 2005. The reenactor certainly looks like Chamberlain. And I think it gives one a great idea, of what the moments before the ceremony must have been like.

Special thanks to my friend Mindy Eckler, for sending me this photo--and to my dear friend Thomas Fleming for reducing the size for me!

Do not use without Mrs. Eckler's written permission.

"It was now the morning of the 12th of April. I had been ordered to have my lines formed for the ceremony at sunrise. It was a chill gray morning, depressing to the senses. But our hearts made warmth. We formed along the principal face the last line of battle, and receive the last remnant of the arms and colors of that great army which ours had been created to confront for all that death can do for life. We were remnants also: Massachusetts, Maine, Michigan, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New York; veterans, and replaced veterans; cut to pieces, cut down, consolidated, divisions into brigades, regiments into one, gathered by state origin."(26)

Chamberlain now went back to the Third Brigade:

"As for me, I was once more with my old command...I had taken leave of my little First Brigade, so endeared to me, and the end of the fighting had released the Second from all orders from me. But these deserved to share with me now as they had so faithfully done in the sterner passages of the campaign. I got permission from General Griffin to have them also in the parade.."(27)

The stage was now set. What would happen in the next few minutes would cause some controversy in the North for Chamberlain, but would endear him to the South:

"The momentous meaning of this occasion impressed me deeply. I resolved to mark it by some token of recognition...which could be no other than a salute of arms....The act could be defended, if needful, by the suggestion that such a salute was not to the cause for which the Confederacy stood, but to its going down before the flag of the Union. My main reason, however, was one for which I sought no authority, nor asked forgiveness."(28)

The Confederates broke camp for the last time, and made their way up the Richmond-Lynchburg Stage Road, to where Chamberlain and his men waited. Leading the way was General Lee's representative: General John B. Gordon--a volunteer officer like Chamberlain, who had also risen through the ranks, and who was also much-wounded in battle:

"Before us, in proud humiliation, stood the embodiment of manhood: men whom neither toils and sufferings, nor the fact of death, nor disaster, nor hopelessness could bend from their resolve; standing before us now, thin, worn, famished, but erect, and with eyes looking level into ours, waking memories that bound us together as no other bond--was not such manhood to be welcomed back into a Union so tested and assured?"(29)

Chamberlain continues:

"Instructions had been given, and when the head of each division column comes opposite our group, our bugle sounds the signal and instantly our whole line from right to left, regiment by regiment, in succession, gives the soldier's salutation, from the 'order arms' to the old 'carry'--the marching salute. Gordon at the head of the column, riding with heavy spirit and downcast face, catches the sound of shifting arms, looks up, and taking the meaning, wheels superbly, making with himself and his horse one uplifted figure, with profound salutation as he drops the point of his sword to the boot toe; then facing his own command, gives word for his successive brigades to pass us with the same position of the manual--honor answering honor".(30)

The ceremony continues all day long, as Chamberlain and his men watch the remnants of this once-great army file in, and stack their muskets, and lay their battle-flags down. He sees remnants of storied regiments, brigades, divisions and corps--such as Cobb's Georgia Legion, Bushrod Johnson's Division, Gordon's Georgians, Ransom's North Carolinians, A.P. Hill's old corps--and Longstreet's First Corps! Men whom he faced in battle from Antietam to Five Forks. Emotions ran high on both sides, as men laid down their worn, but much-cherished, battle flags. Chamberlain ended up playing a part in one such instance:

"A small group, evidently the remainder of a regiment used as some headquarters guard, came in last and late, after their comrades had marched away. As they gave up their flag, stained by the blood and smoke of battle, its color-bearer burst into tears and said to the Union soldiers, 'Boys, this is not the first time you have seen that flag; I have borne it in the front of the battle in many a victorious field, and I had rather die than surrender it now'...'Brave fellow', Chamberlain replied, 'I admire your noble spirit, and only regret that I have not the authority to bid you keep your flag and carry it home as a precious heirloom'. Chamberlain's kind words were repeated to others, and the story became widely known throughout the South."(31)

This is the old courthouse building, which today serves as the Visitor Center at Appomattox Court House National Historical Park. It faces one side of the "Surrender Triangle", in the center of the village.

Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, VA.

Photo courtesy of David Lepkowski.

Do not use without his express written permission.

The solemnity and sadness of the occasion was leavened by a rather comic scene, involving a discussion between Chamberlain and Confederate Brigadier General Henry Wise, a former governor of Virginia-and the man responsibile for hanging abolitionist John Brown in 1859. Chamberlain heard a commotion down the line, and went to investigate--and found Wise arguing with some of his men. Chamberlain sought to help the situation, and remarked to Wise that the good conduct of the troops on both sides boded well for the nation's future. Wise became belligerent:

"You are mistaken, Sir, we won't be forgiven. We hate you, and that is the whole of it!"(32)

As Wise looked at Chamberlain, he noticed the rips and holes in Chamberlain's coat and sleeve--"souvenirs" of his encounter with Wise's men at the Quaker Road--and asked him where he got them. When Chamberlain told him, Wise retorted that he was "fighting three army corps" and "thought it prudent to retire". When Chamberlain told him that he was up against three regiments, Wise angrily replied that he knew what he saw, and proceeded to lecture Chamberlain on the "legal way" to make out paroles! By this time, it had become a bizarre comedy, and staff members on both sides could not control their laughter. In later years, Chamberlain recalled the incident, using a biblical pun--but not mentioning Wise by name:

"'The wise man foreseeth the evil and hideth himself, but the foolish pass on and are punished,' says the old proverb. If there are no exceptions to this rule, then this gentleman was not rightly named."(33)

Finally, it was done, the long day over.

Many things happened in the days and weeks between Appomattox and the army's return to Washington. While camped outside the town of Farmville,VA, on Easter Sunday, 1865, Chamberlain and the rest of the Fifth Corps received the shocking news of the assassination of President Lincoln on April 14. Fearing the worst, he closed off the camps, hoping his men would not wreak vengeance upon the local population. A "funeral in the field" was held on April 19th--the same day as the state funeral in the capital--and was the scene of a potentially explosive incident:

"I summoned the senior chaplain of the division, Father Egan, and told him we looked to him for the memorial address, cautioning him to prepare beforehand, not so much what to say, as what not to say. For I knew his Irish warmth and power of speech, and that he might, if not restrained, stir the hearts of the men too much for our control".(34)

After some solemn music by the First Division's German band, Father Egan rose to deliver the oration:

"The spirit of rebellion against the country's life and honor, he said, incited its followers to murder the innocent and just...He then portrayed the character of Lincoln, his integrity, his rugged truth, his innocence of wrong, his loyalty and lofty fidelity to the people. Then having raised this figure to its highest ideal lights and most endearing attractiveness, he pictured him stricken down by dastard hand in the very midst of acts of mercy and words of great-hearted sympathy and love. Gathering up the emotions of his audience with searching, imploring glance, he reminded the soldiers of Lincoln's love for them, and theirs for him; that brotherhood of suffering that made them one in soul with him."(35)

As Father Egan went on, some of the men began to pale, and instinctively started to reach for their stacked muskets. Chamberlain, seated near the padre on the platform, knew he had to act quickly:

"...I myself was under the spell. Well that the commander was there, to check the flaming orator. Men could not hear it. You could not, were I able to reproduce the scene. Then the speaker stopped. He stood transfixed. I seized his arm. 'Father Egan, you must not stop. Turn this excitement to some good.' "I will', he whispers. Then lifting his arm full height, he brought it down with a tremendous sweep, as if to gather in the whole quivering circle before him, and went on; 'Better so. Better to die glorious, than to live infamous. Better to be buried beneath a nation's tears, than to walk the earth guilty of a nation's blood. Better, thousandfold, forever better, Lincoln dead, than Davis living.'". (36)

Chamberlain had defused a dangerous situation, and the funeral ended without further incident.

In the days following the funeral, Chamberlain became something of a "military governor" in the region between Petersburg and Dinwiddie County. During the nearly two weeks he served in this capacity, food was distributed to civilians who would give the "oath of allegiance" to the Union, and to those in need. He also had to restore some semblance of order in the countryside. During this time, a very humorous incident occurred, brought about by the appearance of an unnamed "Belle of Dinwiddie", who was brought in to take the oath of allegiance by Chamberlain's youngest brother Tom, who was serving as Provost Marshal. Evidently Tom had a crush on the young woman--and big brother Joshua was also somewhat dazzled by her beauty!

"...It was a comical sight when in their presentation of the case, they exchanged glances. Her air was that of an injured party, and he the aggressor. At every soft impeachment his color rose to the Jacqueminot".(37)

After some verbal sparring back and forth between Joshua and the "belle" (whom he described as "the indomitable Portia", for her skill in debating!), she agrees to take the oath. Chamberlain remarks:

"Our Provost Marshal, who kept our oaths for us, told her of the requirement, asking her to kiss the book in token. To both of these suggestions she opposed a very firm determination. Indeed, considering the aspect of these two respective objects, I would not have blamed her if she preferred to reverse the directions, swear to the book and kiss the officer."(38)

Alas, the "relationship" did not last for Tom, and no more mention is made of the lady in question. The Fifth Corps, and the rest of the AOP, made its way through Petersburg and Richmond, bypassing the old battlefield at Fredericksburg. While camped near Hanover Court House, a bizarre incident occurred:

"At about midnight, when the tired camp was still, the sentinel in front of my bivouac spoke nervously, saying there was something strange going on about my horse not far away from us. He had been hastily tethered there amidst a little growth of scrubby pines, so near, and the place so quiet, there seemed to be no need of a guard...I rose and went out myself; and before I reached him my foot crushed through the breast-bones of a body half buried by the fallen pine-cones and needles so long undisturbed, now gone back mostly ashes to ashes. I found that the horse, pawing the earth within the scope of his picket-rope, had rolled out two skulls and scattered the bones of bodies he had unearthed, and was gazing at the white skulls as if lost in doubt; now and then snorting to call others to solve the mystery, or swaying at his tether as if to get away himself."(39)

Charlemagne had discovered the bodies of some long-dead soldiers from a previous battle. These bones were gathered up into old cracker-boxes and taken back with the army to Washington.

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